The page header photo shows an example of Atmospheric Perspective.
Da Vinci's Mona Lisa shows one of the earliest Western examples of this. Leonardo was credited as the first artist to explore this phenomenon and achieve its effects in this painting.
His name for this was "perspective of disappearance".
Notice the background behind Mona Lisa. As the objects recede, they becoming cooler (in color) and lighter in tone. Conversely, the tones in the foreground are darker and warmer in their colors.
Of course, the Chinese have using this technique for many centuries as seen in the right photo of the Fan Kuan ink landscape. (范寬 990-1030) is known to be one of the leading artists of the Northern Song landscape painting.
Paper Size: 9"x12" with a 1-inch border.
Number of Layers: 10 values (9 mountains and 1 white sky -- the paper.)
Shape of your Mountains: You will want to search online for examples. Organic, natural...no triangles. Look outside for real examples. See my example on the board (but don't copy!!).
Values and Depth: Each mountain must have its own value with the darkest one in front. Each additional mountain must get lighter, with the lightest one in the "back". Each mountain will overlap the next one. Depth is the outcome when you're showing overlapping and when the value lightens with each mountain (just like the photos to the left).
Technique: Much like your 10-step value charts, go slowly to produce "flat" mountain values without noticeable streaks or lines. This will require a skillful and slow approach.
Potential Problems: Smudges--avoid these by protecting part of your drawing with a sheet of clean paper or a small section of paper towel.